Tolkien : un autre regard sur la Terre du Milieu (Ex Libris) (French Edition)

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We don't want a good story of new media with a punch line giving somebody the last word. We want a good world of new media that gives everyone at least one first word as in "folksonomical" tagging systems.

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We want a way of imagining our encounter with new media that surprises us out of the "us" we thought we knew. Its goal is to tell a good story of new media encounter that has the maturity of a good world of messy, reversible, and imaginative possibilities. To do so, the volume has really just one trick to play — but what a powerful Coyote or Crow trick it is. The trick is to play the "old" and "new," "codex" and "digital," and "literary" and "informational" off each other in ways that thwart any facile modernization narrative and foster surprising recognitions about the scholarly and cultural potential of new media.

The Companion therefore starts off with a section on "Traditions" before it proceeds to sections on "Textualities" and "Methodologies. Literary studies and computing bump up against each other in a common genealogy of mediated experience — bookish, online, or otherwise — that shuttles uncannily between old and new. In the first section of the volume, for example, Matthew Steggle discusses not just digital scholarship in Renaissance and seventeenth-century literary studies methods that extend the uniquely information-intensive activities of print and microfilm-based cataloguing, bibliography-making, textual scholarship, and so on that had attended this field through much of the twentieth century but also the emergence of a new "Renaissance information" approach that sees the early modern era as itself a precursor information revolution the time of The Renaissance Computer , as the title of one precedent-setting volume of essays he cites would have it.

John Walsh similarly frames digital scholarship in the Romantic and Victorian fields within the hypothesis of a special, elective affinity between the industrial nineteenth century and postindustrial contemporaneity. Not only did both periods witness rapid social, economic, political, and cultural upheaval, but both required "ever more sophisticated and flexible technologies for representing and managing … information" to drive and witness such change.

Far from being an inert material or formal construct that " is ," the codex was always a "program" that " does " and " works "; and it is such functional dynamism that new electronic reading environments should take as their baseline for extending, augmenting, and varying the history of the book. The book is the parent of the program.

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The payoff from refusing to foreclose the negotiation between the old and new is that the volume throughout provides plenty of surmise about the possibilities that emerge from the encounter zone. The essay by Gregory Crane et al.

Mémoires de La Terre Du Milieu : LA CARTE DE LA TERRE DU MILIEU

Stephen Ramsay envisions a new mode of "algorithmic criticism" able to convene computational techniques and literary works not just to enumerate properties in a scientific way but to be a "methodological project of inventio ," a way of defamiliarizing works and corpuses, unfolding new "interpretive possibilities," and furthering the "radical transformation" necessary to any truly critical reading. Keeping to the key of surmise, he concludes, "It is not that such matters as redemptive world views and Marxist readings of texts can be arrived at algorithmically, but simply that algorithmic transformation can provide the alternative visions that give rise to such readings.

Inspired by such surmise, many other essays in this volume offer look-over-the-hill scouting reports about specific new computational algorithms, protocols, forms, and principles. On the side closer to computation as such algorithms, protocols , essays by Marc Bragdon et al. Guertin focuses on the "postnarrative" narratives that have arisen from such hypertext and other digital forms.

In the same narrative vein, Nick Montfort studies the genre of interactive fiction, and Marie-Laure Ryan scales up the concept of digital fiction to "world building. Saltz considers the new use of digital technology in performance. And to close on the side closer to what I above called "principles": several contributors probe the fundamental principles of digital computation as they drive the entire ferment of algorithms, protocols, and forms. John Lavagnino, for instance, discusses the complex relation between the orders of the "digital" and "analog"; while Noah Wardrip-Fruin looks closely at James Meehan's story-generation program, Tale-Spin , to theorize expansively about the "interplay" between a digital work's "surface, data, and process" that at last expresses its undergirding "logic of operations" and so its overall world view, ethos, or meaning in this case, a world view of "planning" that exceeds the status of computational method per se.


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Digital literature, Wardrip-Fruin argues, is "expressive processing. It is the imaginative surmise that all people today who both love literature and practice new media or vice versa attempt. Here we at last come to the most specific mission of this volume, which is not to explore the general encounter with digital new media but, in particular, the encounter of literary studies with digital new media.

How can literature be digital?

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A Companion to Digital Literary Studies

And how can the digital the home territory, after all, of office files, databases, and spreadsheets as well as mass entertainment special effects be literary? Does literature really have a future in a new media ecology where the fiercest, deepest, and most meaningful identity tales of our young people seem to be beholden to iPods and other I-media of music, video, chat, and blogs? These questions also have no easy answer.

I wrote a whole book recently that started out by aiming for an answer, only to be diverted into studying the proto-aesthetic of information "cool" from which, I hypothesized, any understanding of information answerable to my old love, literature, must eventually come. In lieu of an answer, let me here conclude simply by being clear about the immense stakes involved in the mission of the present volume, which, as I suggested, is not just to narrate but to prepare to imagine. Let me tell an open-ended story.

Once upon a time, "literature" in the general sense of "letters" was the darling of the great new medium of its time, writing, which — like any medium — organized and served as the interface between new technological, communicational, and computational protocols. Technologically, the protocol was the print codex and related forms previously, the manuscript. Communicationally, it was rhetoric adapted to new graphic layouts. And computationally, it consisted of new logical processing apparatuses such as tables of contents, chapter or section titles, indexes, and so on that ramified classically mnemonic, analytical, and rhetorical routines e.

By the time "literature" was honed into its narrower, modern sense of aesthetic discourse, it was the operator of an advanced technological, communicational, and computational medium that was rapidly being extended via lithography, photography, and other means into a fully modern media mix.

But that fuller media sphere was also a problem for literature. In successive stages between the s and s, literature and literary studies — provoked in part by competition with the new audiovisual media apparatuses — assumed difficult avant-garde, formalist, structuralist, and poststructuralist avatars that at once stood off from info-media "heresy of paraphrase," Cleanth Brooks called it and assimilated its mind set.

But it had features of all these in unsettling ways. Cutting literature off from the old, high transcendental truths located in the divine or the romantic self , these movements sequestered literariness in a peculiarly modern, academic, or knowledge-work version of rhetoric and logic.

Literature became a self-contained "form" whose internally programmed complexity had to be "closely read" with technical attention. Today, "digital" is the great new medium, and — as the modern to postmodern lineage outlined above anticipated — literature is certainly not its darling. The star today is "media" in a larger and more promiscuous sense that intermixes literature when it includes it at all with music, film, TV, animation, journalism, and so on to concoct an evolutionary stew of hot bits fighting against, and with, each other to create the new media ecology.

Not coincidentally, therefore, new media studies is the title that in the academy has now won more general cultural and theoretical cachet than such narrower phrases rooted in specific disciplines as "digital humanities," "humanities computing," "electronic arts," "electronic literature," and "computer-mediated communications.


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It is shorthand, for example, for technological innovations at the hardware and software levels; new communication paradigms as studied in the social-science field of "computer-mediated communication" ; and new computation methods including data-mining and -generation. Yet, to keep the story open-ended, all the while the question of imagination has been left open like a vulnerable port in a firewall through which literature might still hack its way.

Of course, "imagination" is a distinctively romantic phrasing. The Aeolian harp that exercised Coleridge's and Percy Shelley's imagination, perhaps, was really a special kind of algorithmic computational instrument on a par with the Babbage machines and Jacquard looms of the time ancestral to the digital computer. Let me generalize, therefore, by reaching all the way back to classical literary roots.

Poiesis is not the same as technology, communication, or computation. But it combines all these to imagine the identity tales — tragic, utopian, or messily mixed — that mediate "us" in relation to the others who are part of our generative kernel. We need today a poiesis of digital literary studies able to imagine how old and new literary media together allow us to imagine.

In such a poetics, everything old and new is up for grabs again as we negotiate the contact zone between such paired terms as the following:. We thought we knew what "writing" means, but now "encoding" makes us wonder and vice versa. So, too, "reading" and "browsing" as well as related activities like searching, data-mining, and data-visualization destabilize each other. The same applies to all the other pairs in this list, and many others that could be added.

The task of studying new media, it might be said, is to help us better to understand what it meant to write, read, and imagine in the past; while, inversely, that of studying old media is to help us appreciate what it now means to encode, browse, simulate, etc. Comparing and contrasting new media thus stand to offer a view of negotiability in itself — a view, that is, of the contested relations of force that determine the pathways by which new media may eventually become old hat" 6.

And pagus always indicates the country, the region It is the place where one compacts with something else It is a place of boundaries. Boundaries are not borders.

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And the relation with the gods, including the pragmatic relation of discourses, does not obey a pragmatics of border to border, between the two perfectly defined blocks or two armies, or two verbal sets, confronting each other. On the contrary, it is a place of ceaseless negotiations and ruses. Pingree's introduction "What's New About New Media" to their edited collection, New Media, — , seems to me very wise: "we might say that new media, when they first emerge, pass through a phase of identity crisis, a crisis precipitated at least by the uncertain status of the given medium in relation to established, known media and their functions.

In other words, when new media emerge in a society, their place is at first ill defined, and their ultimate meanings or functions are shaped over time by that society's existing habits of media use which, of course, derive from experience with other, established media , by shared desires for new uses, and by the slow process of adaptation between the two.

The 'crisis' of a new medium will be resolved when the perceptions of the medium, as well as its practical uses, are somehow adapted to existing categories of public understanding about what that medium does for whom and why" xii.

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I am aided in particular by Ronald J. Deibert; Matthew Fuller; and Bonnie A. Nardi and Vicki L. It appears that sometime in the s the singular usage of "media" gained currency. It may be that the word blurred between plural and singular at roughly the time it came to designate, or discover, a general concept as opposed to discrete media forms. It is cognate, in other words, with the recognition of "media culture," "media theory," and so on.